Chemistry: Properties and Application of Sb-Antimony (2023)


Antimony is a semi metallic chemical element in Period 5 and Group 15 of the Periodic Table of chemical elements. Because it is semi metallic, it exists as both a metal and non-metal. The metallic form is silvery, bright, brittle and hard while the non-metallic form is a grayish powder. Like many elements in its group, antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Existence of antimony has been known since ancient times and was used by ancient alchemists to make other metals, beauty products, and concoctions for healing. Antimony is found in trace quantities in nature but is chiefly obtained from mineral ores such as valentinite (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Pure refined antimony is used to make semiconductor devices such as infrared detectors and diodes. It is also alloyed with lead to make the latter more durable.


Antimony is a shiny, silvery white element. Its surface is scaly, and is brittle and hard like a non-metal. As a metalloid, it exhibits characteristics of both metals and non-metals. Compounds of antimony have been used by human beings since ancient times. In ancient Egypt, women used the stibic stone (antimony sulfide) as make-up for eyes. The stibic stone was also used in making glassware and glazes for beads (Randich et al, 2002). The chemical name for antimony (stibium) was taken from the ancient Egyptian name for the element. Antimony is believed to have been named by Roman scholar Pliny (23–79 CE) who called it stibium. Arab alchemist Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan (721–815 CE) probably first called it antimony — ‘anti’ meaning not and ‘monos’ meaning alone because the element does not occur alone in nature (Shotyk, Krachler & Chen, 2006).

Although it was used for a long time, it was not until the 17th century that antimony was recognized as a chemical element. The first modern detailed information about antimony was published in the 18th century when French chemist Nicolas Lemery wrote the Treatise on Antimony (Krebs, 2006). Antimony occurs in two natural isotopes, antimony-121 and antimony-123. Isotopy occurs when two or more forms of an element differ from each other in terms of mass numbers. In addition, about twenty different radioactive isotopes of antimony are known. These isotopes give off some form of radiation. Two of these radioactive isotopes (antimony-124 and antimony-125) are used commercially as tracers (Emsley, 2011).

General Properties and Reactions

The chemical and physical properties of antimony are summarized in Table 1 below. Antimony metal is generally stable under normal conditions and does not react with air or water. It is also a poor conductor of electricity and heat. In the electrochemical series, antimony is positioned after hydrogen, meaning that it cannot displace ions of hydrogen from dilute acids. Simple cations of antimony (Sb+3 and Sb+5) do not occur in solutions but in hydrolyzed form such as Sb(OH)6¯ (Randich et al., 2002). The dominant cations species in the pH range unique to natural environments is Sb(OH)3 and Sb(OH)6¯ for trivalent antimony and pentavalent antimony respectively. In oxidizing environments, Sb(OH)3 is the dominant species under relatively reducing conditions whereas Sb(OH)6¯ tends to be dominant for pH values greater than 3 (Schmitt, 1960).

In natural water, the concentration of antimony has been found to be too low for antimony pentoxide (Sb2O5) or antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) to precipitate out. Antimony trioxide exhibits dimorphic properties, existing as an orthorhombic form (valentinite) or as a cubic form (senarmontite). The latter form is stable below 570°C of temperature. Additionally, antimony trioxide is amphoteric, meaning that it is soluble in hydrochloric acid, bases and certain organic acids but not in dilute nitric or sulphuric acid. Strong oxidizing agents such as nitric acid convert antimony trioxide into antimony pentoxide, which is strongly acidic (Schmitt, 1960).

Another major property of Antimony is that it forms complex ions with both organic and inorganic acids, the best known of which is tartrate. Stibine (SBH3) is one of the few gaseous antimony compounds. In this compound, the antimony is in the -3 valence state (Shotyk, Krachler & Chen, 2006). The compound is formed by the reactive effect of acids on antimony alloys or metal antimonides, electrolysis of basic or acidic solutions where antimony is used as a cathode, or reduction of antimony compounds. This implies that there is the danger of stibine being precipitated from lead storage batteries where antimony is alloyed with the lead. With time, stibine decomposes into hydrogen and metallic antimony. It is readily oxidized by air at normal conditions to form water and antimony trioxide (Krebs, 2006).

Electrolytic deposition of antimony results in an unstable, amorphous form of the element called explosive antimony. When scratched or bent, explosive antimony changes mildly in a very explosive manner to the stable metallic form. There is also a yellow form of antimony that results from mild temperature oxidation of stibine, and an amorphous black that results from sudden quenching of the vapor. Metallic antimony does not react with moisture or air under ordinary conditions, but is readily converted into oxide if the air is moist. The halogens and sulphur can easily oxidize antimony when heated (Emsley, 2011).

The electronic structure of antimony is closely related to that of arsenic, and consists of three half-filled orbitals in the last shell. It is thus able to form covalent bonding and exhibits -3 and +3 oxidation states (Haynes, 2015). Antimony acts as an oxidizing agent and readily reacts with many metals to form antimonides. All antimonides, in general, resemble phosphides, nitrides and arsenides but are somehow more metallic. For the purpose of analytical chemistry, antimony can be easily weighed and separated for analysis as the antimony sulfide, (Sb2S3). In an alternative process, the sulfide is converted to oxide and then weighed as Sb4O6. In addition, there is a wide range of volumetric methods such as oxidization of antimony with potassium permanganate iodine or potassium bromated. The modified Gutzeit method can be used to determine small amounts of antimony (Harder, 2002).

Summary Physical Properties of Antimony

Chemical symbol



Atomic Number


Atomic weight


Melting point

903.78K ((630.63°C or 1167.13°F))

Boiling point

1860 K (1587°C or 2889°F)

State at room temperature


Elemental classification





(Video) Antimony|Chemistry of Antimony|properties


Group name



6.684 g/cm3

Ionization Energy

8.64 eV

Oxidation States

+5, +3, -3

Electron configuration



Antimony is hardly found in its native state (as an element). Instead, it occurs as a compound in more than 100 different minerals. The most common minerals containing antimony are stibnite, bournonite, tetrahedrite, jamesonite and boulangerite. In most of these minerals, antimony is found combined with sulfur to form antimony sulfide (Sb2S3). Other major commercial minerals of antimony are cervantite, stibcontite, kermasite, valentinite and senarmontite. Complex ores such as livingstonite are also a major source of antimony. The abundance of antimony in the earth’s crust is estimated to be 0.2 parts per million, making it one of the rarest of the chemical elements found in the earth’s crust. China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and South Africa are the largest producers of antimony in the world. The United States produces substantial quantities of antimony as a by-product at the Idaho silver mine (Haynes, 2015).

Uses and Applications of Antimony

Antimony is mainly used metallurgically as an additive substance because its physical properties are not suitable for engineering. By far, its most important commercial use is as an alloying component for lead and certain lead-based alloys to improve corrosion resistance and make the alloy hard and stiff. Antimony is also used as an alloying constituent in tin to produce tin-based babbits and pewter for use in bearing metal applications. The element is also widely used in the manufacture of castings, soldiering materials and cable insulations. Certain lead-antimony alloys are used in the manufacture of low friction metals, batteries and type metals among other commercial products. Other antimony compounds are used to manufacture paints, flame proofing materials, glass, ceramic enamels and pottery (Harder, 2002).

(Video) Antimony Explained in 20 Minutes or less

Major Applications with all Structural and Functional Details

The structural properties of antimony and its compounds make it suitable for use in a variety of other industrial and commercial applications. The most common compound, antimony sulfide, is used to vulcanize rubber. Its unique chemical properties make it ideal for use as a vermillion pigment and certain other pigment shades such as orange and yellow, which are formed by slow oxidation of the sulfide. To a lesser extent, antimony sulfide is used in fireworks, racer bullets and ammunition primers. Pure antimony (purity level exceeding 99.999%) is applied in semi-conductor technology. Such high levels of purity can be obtained from the reduction of high purity compounds such as chloride and trioxide with hydrogen. Important compounds of antimony with groups III or V oxidation state as (AlSb, GaSb and InSb) are widely used as diodes, infra red detectors, and Hall effect devices (Robert, 2006).

Antimony and its compounds are also used in the field of medical sciences. Antimony trioxide is used in the preparation of certain medicines called antimonials, which are used as emetics. Selected antimony compounds are used in the treatment of protozoans. Tarter emetic (Potassium antimonyl tartrate) was once used as a leading anti-schistosomal drug but has been replaced by praziquantel. Antimony and some of its compounds are used to prepare veterinary medicines such as lithium antimony thiomalate, which is applied to ruminants as a skin conditioner. In other animals, antimony is used because of its keratinized tissues. Antimony can be toxic depending on its chemical state. Generally, metallic antimony is inert but stibunite is very toxic. When handling antimony and its compounds, proper ventilation should be used to avoid contamination. Notable cases of dermatitis and other skin conditions have been reported in facilities handling antimony (Haynes, 2015).

Oxidation States Exhibited by Antimony



Electron configuration

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3

Minimum oxidation number


Maximum oxidation number


Minimum common oxidation number

Maximum common oxidation number


(Video) Antimony - Tales from the Periodic Table

Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)


Polarizability volume

6.6 Å3

Structure and Coordinate Geometry

Antimony’s coordinate geometry consists of three covalent bonds and a single lone pair of electrons. Reluctance of this element to engage in hybridization results in typical bond angles approximating 90 degrees. Subsequent steric interactions and chelated structures have been shown to enforce other geometries. The tetracoordinate tetrahedral geometry shown in Figure 1 below is common for antimony and other elements. Computational studies of antimony’s potential bonding arrangements suggest minimal d-orbital participation. Thus, antimony’s double bond arrangement is described as singly bonded with localized negative charges (Harder, 2002).

Figure 1: Bonding Model For Antimony Coordinate Geometry


Antimony and its mineral compounds have been known since ancient times. Antimony is one of the numerous elements that occur naturally in the environment, although it is found mainly in compound form. It also finds its way into the environment through numerous applications by human actions. Antimony was discovered as an element in the 17th century although it had been in use several centuries earlier. Ancient Egyptians and Roman alchemists used antimony to prepare beauty products and drugs. In the world economy, antimony is an important commercial element. It is used in the manufacture of various industrial products and as an alloy for strengthening other metals such as lead and tin. Russia and China are the leading producers of antimony.

Being a rare element, antimony is mainly found in its natural form of sulfide stibnite. A highly pure form of antimony is used to make different types of semiconductor devices such as infrared detectors and diodes. Alloys of antimony and lead are used to manufacture batteries, cable sheatings, bullets and other products such as glass and paints. Antimony is also widely used in making flame-retardant materials. About half of all antimony alloys goes to this use. Both antimony and its compounds are highly toxic and thus dangerous to human health. Even in low levels, it can cause an irritating sensation to the lungs and eyes. It can also cause stomach pain, vomiting and ulcers. At higher doses, antimony contamination can cause severe organ failure and even death.


Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press: New York.

Harder, A. (2002). Chemotherapeutic approaches to schistosomes: Current knowledge and outlook. Parasitology Research 88 (5): 395–7.

Haynes, W. (2015). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton.

Krebs, R. E. (2006). The history and use of our earth’s chemical elements: a reference guide. Boston: Greenwood Publishing Group.

(Video) Is Antimony (Sb) a Metal, Non-Metal, or Metalloid?

Randich, E. et al. (2002). A metallurgical review of the interpretation of bullet lead compositional analysis. Forensic Science International 127 (3): 174–91.

Schmitt, H. (1960). Determination of the energy of antimony-beryllium photoneutrons. Nuclear Physics 20: 220.

Shotyk, W., Krachler, M. & Chen, B. (2006). Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 8 (2): 288–92.


What is the chemical properties of antimony? ›

Antimony is a semimetallic chemical element which can exist in two forms: the metallic form is bright, silvery, hard and brittle; the non metallic form is a grey powder. Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, it is stable in dry air and is not attacked by dilute acids or alkalis.

What is a main application of antimony? ›

Main uses of antimony

Antimony is used to increase the hardness of alloys, with lead alloys for batteries, with lead/copper/tin alloys for machine bearings. It is also used in automotive clutch and brake parts. The other major use is as antimony trioxide which is used for the production of flame retardant chemicals.

What is the chemical that has the symbol Sb? ›

antimony (Sb), a metallic element belonging to the nitrogen group (Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table).

Why was the element antimony given its name? ›

The name derives from the Greek, anti + monos for "not alone" or "not one" because it was found in many compounds. The symbol Sb comes from stibium, which is derived from the Greek stibi for "mark" because it was used for blackening eyebrows and eyelashes.

What is as in chemistry? ›

arsenic. arsenic (As), a chemical element in the nitrogen group (Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table), existing in both gray and yellow crystalline forms.

Does Sb react with water? ›

Antimony does not react with air or water at room temperature; it does react with fluorine, chlorine, or bromine and is soluble in hot nitric or sulfuric acid; at higher temperatures, antimony will ignite and burn in air.

What classification is antimony? ›

Data Zone
Classification:Antimony is a metalloid
Atomic weight:121.760
Melting point:630.79 oC, 903.94 K
Boiling point:1587 oC, 1860 K
7 more rows

What is unique about antimony? ›

Antimony has two stable isotopes. It also has thirty-five radioactive isotopes. The longest half-life of any of the radioisotopes is 2.75 years. Antimony is believed to be found in the Earth's crust at about 0.2 to 0.5 parts per million.

What is the meaning of Sb in antimony? ›

Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3).

Is antimony magnetic yes or no? ›

The magnetic susceptibility of antimony both parallel and perpendicular to the trigonal axis is independent of field down to 4° K.

Is antimony poisonous? ›

It can be harmful to the eyes and skin. Antimony can also cause problems with the lungs, heart, and stomach. Workers may be harmed from exposure to antimony and its compounds.

How do you identify antimony? ›

  1. Antimony is a silvery-white metal that is found in the earth's crust. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. ...
  2. Antimony powder appears as a silvery or gray solid in the form of dust. ...
  3. Antimony(0) is an elemental antimony.

Why antimony is called a metalloid? ›

A series of six elements called the metalloids separate the metals from the nonmetals in the periodic table. The metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. These elements look metallic; however, they do not conduct electricity as well as metals so they are semiconductors.

Who first discovered antimony? ›

Although its orginial discoverer is unknown, antimony was first specifically studied by Nicolas Lémery (1654-1715), a French chemist and one-time Apothecary Jardin du Roi in Paris.

Is antimony a mineral? ›

Antimony: The Most Important Mineral You Never Heard Of.

What are the 5 types of chemistry? ›

The way that chemists study matter and change and the types of systems that are studied varies dramatically. Traditionally, chemistry has been broken into five main subdisciplines: Organic, Analytical, Physical, Inorganic and Biochemistry.

What is chemistry used for? ›

Chemistry is essential for meeting our basic needs of food, clothing, shelter, health, energy, and clean air, water, and soil. Chemical technologies enrich our quality of life in numerous ways by providing new solutions to problems in health, materials, and energy usage.

Why do we study chemistry? ›

The study of chemistry provides global work opportunities. Chemistry underpins understanding and progress in almost every sphere of science, technology and industry. It also makes a vital contribution to the economy, commerce and industry.

Can antimony dissolve in water? ›

Some notable antimony compounds are diantimony trioxide (Sb2O3, also called antimony trioxide), which is slightly soluble in water (2.76 mg/L), and antimony potassium tartrate (Sb2K2(C4H2O6)2 3H2O, also called APT), which is very soluble in water (83 g/L).

Is antimony flammable? ›

ANTIMONY is spontaneously flammable in fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. With iodine, the reaction produces heat, which can cause flame or even an explosion if the quantities are great enough [Mellor 9:379 1946-47].

Does antimony react with acid? ›

Reaction of antimony with acids

Antimony dissolves in hot concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4, or nitric acid, HNO3, to form solutions containing Sb(III). The sulphuric acid reaction produces sulphur(IV) dioxide gas.

Where is antimony commonly found? ›

Antimony is sometimes found in pure form. It is also obtained from the mineral stibnite (antimony sulfide) and commonly is a by-product of lead-zinc-silver mining. Other antimony-bearing minerals include sibiconite, tetrahedrite and ullmannite. It is mined in China, Bolivia, South Africa and Mexico.

What minerals is antimony made of? ›

The principal ore minerals of antimony are stibnite and jamesonite, but it can also be a byproduct of certain other minerals. Eighty percent of the world's antimony is produced from two types of deposits — carbonate replacement deposits and gold-antimony epithermal deposits.

Is antimony a heavy metal? ›

Antimony toxicity

Figure 2. ANZECC drinking water and sediment limits for some "heavy metals". Antimony is considered to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals, and therefore has lower limits than other metals except cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg).

What is the color of antimony? ›

Composition and Properties of Antimony Orange

Its color can vary from yellow to orange to deep crimson red.

How do you remember antimony Sb? ›

You can remember the chemical symbol for Antimony, which is Sb, by remembering "Susan B Anthony" who was a US women's rights activist. Did You Know?

How many isotopes does Sb have? ›

There are two stable isotopes of Sb, 121Sb and 123Sb (Kathawa et al., 2013), with abundance of 57.213% and 42.787%, respectively (Berglund and Wieser, 2011).

Is the name of Sb? ›

Antimony (Sb Element)
Atomic Number51
Atomic Mass121.760 g.mol -1
Discoveryapprox 1600 BC
28 Jul 2019

How many valence electrons are there in Sb? ›

The atomic number of Antimony is 51 and its symbol is Sb i.e. stibium. The electronic configuration of Sb will be 2,8,18,18,5. So, the number of valence electrons present in the outer shell of Sb is 5.

Is antimony a mixture? ›

Answer and Explanation: Antimony (Sb) is an element. We know this because you can find antimony on the periodic table and the periodic table lists all the elements in the universe. Antimony has an atomic number of 51 and is found in period 5 and group 15 of the periodic table.

Is antimony paramagnetic or diamagnetic? ›

Magnetic Type of the elements
35 more rows

What products contain antimony? ›

Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys, which are used in lead storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipe metal, bearings, castings, and pewter. Antimony oxide is an antimony compound that is added to textiles and plastics to prevent them from catching fire.

Is antimony good for eyes? ›

Asmad/ Antimony sulphide is one of the famous product available in Asian and Middle East countries and being used since long ago for eye cleansing, strengthening, brightening and improve the vision. In Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, the use of Asmad is frequent in healthy eyes because of Islamic and historical importance.

What is the value of antimony? ›

The raw material shortage combined with the worldwide shipping delays caused a supply shortage of refined antimony on the market, and the antimony price reached a high of $6.65 per pound in October 2021 compared with the annual average price of $2.67 per pound in 2020.

What is the source of antimony? ›

Antimony and its compounds are naturally present in the Earth's crust and are released into the environment by natural discharges such as windblown dust, volcanic eruptions, sea spray, forest fires, and biogenic sources.

What is the solubility of a antimony? ›

Antimony trioxide
Solubility in water370 ± 37 µg/L between 20.8°C and 22.9°C
Solubilitysoluble in acid
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)-69.4·106 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD)2.087, α-form 2.35, β-form
47 more rows

Is Sb a cation or anion? ›

PubChem CID104894
SynonymsAntimony(3+) Antimony cation (3+) ANTIMONY (III) ION Antimony, ion (Sb(3+)) UNII-069647RPT5 More...
Molecular Weight121.760
DatesModify 2022-09-17 Create 2004-09-16
DescriptionAntimony(3+) is a monoatomic trication and an elemental antimony. ChEBI
2 more rows

Is antimony a transition metal? ›

Sometimes germanium and antimony are categorized as post-transition metals instead of metalloids.

What are the properties of metals? ›

Physical Properties of Metals

Metals are lustrous, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity. Other properties include: State: Metals are solids at room temperature with the exception of mercury, which is liquid at room temperature (Gallium is liquid on hot days).

What are the chemical properties of metalloids? ›

Metalloids can conduct electricity, but not as well as metals. Chemically, they act more like nonmetals, easily forming anions, having multiple oxidation states, and forming covalent bonds. Their ionization energies and electronegativities are in between the values of metals and nonmetals.

Who discovered metalloids? ›

In 1875, Kemshead observed that the elements had been subdivided into two classes—'non-metals or metalloids, and metals.

Is Sb a solid liquid or gas at room temperature? ›

Gallium (Ga, element 31) melts at 30ºC, slightly above room temperature, but is often indicated as a liquid on periodic tables, since the solid metal literally melts when held in the hand (since body temperature is about 37ºC).
Physical States — Melting Points, Boiling Points, and Densities.
12 more columns

Is antimony a semiconductor? ›

Antimony is a semi-metal that is already used in electronics for some semiconductor devices, such as infrared detectors. As a material, it is only a couple of atomic layers thick and has a high charge mobility -- the speed a charge moves through a material when being pulled by an electric field.

Who produces antimony? ›

China is the largest producer of Antimony metal, with 78% of antimony being mined in China, followed by 4% Russia, 4% Tajikistan and 11% Vietnam. A minor amount of antimony is also extracted in countries such as Bolivia, Kyrgyzstan and South Africa.

How much antimony is produced? ›

According to USGS in 2016 the world Antimony reserves amounted to 2 million tons, 80% of which is concentrated in three countries: China, Russia, and Bolivia (USGS, 2016). The annual globally mined production of Antimony is approximately 175,500 tons (BGS, 2015), most of which is extracted in China.

Is antimony a rock? ›

Metallic antimony is an extremely brittle metal with a flaky, crystalline texture.

What are the chemical properties of barium? ›

Chemical properties of barium - Health effects of barium - Environmental effects of barium
Atomic number56
Electronegativity according to Pauling0.9
Density3.5 at 20°C
Melting point725 °C
Boiling point1640 °C
9 more rows

What are chemical properties of cobalt? ›

Chemical properties of cobalt - Health effects of cobalt - Environmental effects of cobalt
Atomic number27
Density8.9 at 20°C
Melting point1495 °C
Boiling point2927 °C
Vanderwaals radius0.125 nm
10 more rows

What is unique about antimony? ›

Antimony has two stable isotopes. It also has thirty-five radioactive isotopes. The longest half-life of any of the radioisotopes is 2.75 years. Antimony is believed to be found in the Earth's crust at about 0.2 to 0.5 parts per million.

Is antimony flammable? ›

ANTIMONY is spontaneously flammable in fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. With iodine, the reaction produces heat, which can cause flame or even an explosion if the quantities are great enough [Mellor 9:379 1946-47].

What is an application of barium? ›

Uses of Barium

Its compounds are used by oil and gas industries to make drilling mud. Drilling mud simplifies drilling through rocks by lubricating the drill. Barium compounds are also used to make paint, bricks, tiles, glass, and rubber. Barium nitrate and chlorate give fireworks a green colour.

What are 5 physical properties of barium? ›

Physical properties

Pure barium is a pale yellow, somewhat shiny, somewhat malleable metal. Malleable means capable of being hammered into thin sheets. It has a melting point of about 700°C (1,300°F) and a boiling point of about 1,500°C (2,700°F). Its density is 3.6 grams per cubic centimeter.

What is the properties and uses of barium? ›

Uses and properties

Barium is a soft, silvery metal that rapidly tarnishes in air and reacts with water. Barium is not an extensively used element. Most is used in drilling fluids for oil and gas wells. It is also used in paint and in glassmaking.

What is the application of cobalt? ›

Uses Of Cobalt

Cobalt is used in many alloys & super alloys to make parts in aircraft engines, gas turbines, high-speed steels, corrosion-resistant alloys, and cemented carbides. It is used in magnets and magnetic recording media. It is also used as a catalyst for the petroleum and chemical industries.

Which is chemical property? ›

A chemical property is a characteristic of a particular substance that can be observed in a chemical reaction. Some major chemical properties include flammability, toxicity, heat of combustion, pH value, rate of radioactive decay, and chemical stability.

What are 5 uses of cobalt? ›

Cobalt is also used to make airbags in automobiles; catalysts for the petroleum and chemical industries; cemented carbides (also called hardmetals) and diamond tools; corrosion- and wear-resistant alloys; drying agents for paints, varnishes, and inks; dyes and pigments; ground coats for porcelain enamels; high-speed ...

How do you identify antimony? ›

  1. Antimony is a silvery-white metal that is found in the earth's crust. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. ...
  2. Antimony powder appears as a silvery or gray solid in the form of dust. ...
  3. Antimony(0) is an elemental antimony.

Is antimony magnetic yes or no? ›

The magnetic susceptibility of antimony both parallel and perpendicular to the trigonal axis is independent of field down to 4° K.

What is the color of antimony? ›

Composition and Properties of Antimony Orange

Its color can vary from yellow to orange to deep crimson red.

Is Sb toxic? ›

It can be harmful to the eyes and skin. Antimony can also cause problems with the lungs, heart, and stomach. Workers may be harmed from exposure to antimony and its compounds.

How is antimony made? ›

Some antimony is produced as a by-product of smelting ores of other metals, mainly gold, copper and silver, in countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia. Important amounts of antimony are yielded as a by-product of copper and silver mining. Numerous stibnite deposits occur in Idaho, Montana and Nevada.

Is antimony a mixture? ›

Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51.


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